The presence of a footnote or endnote is generally indicated in the text of the book with a number.  However, they may also be indicated by one of the following:  asterisk (*), dagger (†), double dagger (††), or number. These characters require special formatting, as follows:

  • Replace daggers (†) with a double asterisk (**)
  • Replace double daggers (††) with a triple asterisk (***)

For footnotes or endnotes that appear as numbers in the text:

  • Leave numbers as is – do not replace with asterisks
  • Make sure there is a space before and after the number or asterisk in the text
  • Numbers can be superscripted or subscripted. Keep whichever is in the original text.

Example: superscript ⁴ , subscript ₁


Footnotes are located at the bottom of a page.

  • Place the footnote information at the bottom of the page in square brackets
  • Both the information and the corresponding number or asterisk should be inside the brackets

Example 1: [1. Library of Alexandria]

Example 2: [** Library of Congress]


Endnotes are located at the end of the chapter, or the end of the book, rather than at the bottom of a page

  • Treat the endnote heading as a chapter heading (16 point and bold)
  • Do not use tabs to format, just single spaces


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